A Brief History of Emergence
The emergence phenomenon has been at work transforming the universe and our planet since the beginning. It can be seen in the Big Bang that began our universe and formed our solar system. As their telescopes reach further back in time, astronomers continue to view the steps of the emergence process in action: destruction, reorganization and new creation.
Emergence can be seen in the many epochs of time on earth before man, during which earlier life forms were destroyed through various catastrophic events – whether caused by celestial objects, volcanism or climate change. Out of the destructive chaos, nature brought forth new, different life forms that emerged from these chaotic reorganizations of the planet’s environment.
The first cellular life appeared after the moon was formed 4.5 billion years ago after a theorized collision between the earth and another planet-sized object. After another chaotic period of bombardment by celestial objects around 3.9 billion years ago, prokaryotic organisms appeared around deep sea vents, followed by bacteria that would eventually generate an oxygen atmosphere and photosynthesis, eukaryotic cellular life around 1.85 billion years ago, sexual reproduction and multicellular organisms about 1.2 billion years ago, and protozoa about 750 million years ago.
Scientists note that a “Cambrian explosion of life” occurred about 542 million years ago, leading to what is known as the Phaerozoic eon, the first era of “well displayed life” in the fossil record. That eon is divided into three major eras, the Paleozoic (542 to 251.4 million years ago), Mesozoic (251.4 to 65.5 million years ago) and Cenozoic (65.5 million years ago to the present).
The first two eras appear to have ended in chaotic extinction events that spawned reorganizations of life on the planet. The Paleozoic ended in what is known as the Permian-Triassic (the name is based on geologic time classification) extinction event, which apparently wiped out more than 90 to 95 percent of marine species and 70 percent of land-based vertebrates. Life reorganized and adapted during the Mesozoic “dinosaur” era, which ended in the more famous “Cretaceous –Tertiary” extinction event, which wiped out about half of all animal species, including most of the dinosaurs, and which was probably triggered by an asteroid impact near what is now the
peninsula. Since the Paleozoic lasted
about 300 million years, and the Mesozoic about 200 million years, one can only
hope that the Cenozoic will last 100 million years, which gives us about
another 35 million years to avoid the dinosaurs’ fate!
Similar to the evolution of all life on earth, the emergence process can be seen throughout humanity’s evolution, from its beginning 5 or 6 million years ago when Australopithecines differentiated themselves from the other apes in the African jungle. It can be seen when Homo Habilis and/or a baffling family tree of later hominid successors (Homos Ergaster, Erectus, Heidelbergensis, Rhodesiensis, etc.), which anthropologists are still trying to figure out, emerged from Africa at various times from about 2.3 million to 125,000 years ago and began to use simple tools. It can be seen when Neanderthals learned to use more sophisticated tools about 50,000 years ago and when Cro-Magnons, the first modern humans, slowly took over the earth, employing their modern, facile brains about 30,000 years ago. Emergence can also be seen, although apparently not yet datable with certainty, in the inventions of language, speech and, much later, writing and the alphabet – all of which helped humans transmit ideas from generation to generation.
After wading through pre-history, about which we know enough to merely speculate, some might say emergence is simply evolution. And the two processes are related. Evolution can be seen as a description of the overall process from a macro point of view, a series of points of emergence over time.
It remains to be seen if we Homo Sapiens are the final branch of humanity; perhaps some new species will emerge out of the chaos and destruction we have created. Certainly, today’s humans seem to sense that we are living through a period of emergence as we forage forward toward the end of the Cenozoic. Today, many subconsciously acknowledge that we are experiencing a chaotic time in which the old ways no longer work and that we are groping forward toward something new, even though we don’t know what that something is.
It may come as no surprise that such a perception is by no means unique and has probably been expressed by humans of every generation. In fact, history is built upon periods and instances of emergence, as transformative ideas sprout out of seeming chaos to create something completely different from what had gone on before.
A major instance of early emergence during the human age can be seen as people who had once been hunter-gatherers learned to domesticate animals and grow crops 10,000 to 12,000 years ago in the Middle East,
Nile Valley, and western Asia.
Pastoralism and then sedentary agriculture
emerged as nomadic tribes began to herd domesticated animals, and then realized
the value of living in villages and growing a steady supply of plant food.
Why did it happen? The reasons are complex and the subject of much study by anthropologists, but growing population mixed with climate change in marginal areas clearly played a driving role. In locations in which food resources were becoming scarce, the herder could park his food nearby and move it as necessary rather than rely on the risky chance of going farther afield to bag good game. Likewise, the farmer could grow grain right in his or her own backyard rather than having to travel farther to locate new and distant sources of food.
Food and animal agriculture are perhaps the most important human examples of emergence, after the harnessing of fire and the use of simple and complex tools. A chaotic environment drove humans to rethink their situation regarding their food supply, and they solved their problem using creative new solutions that would transform the lives of humans for millennia.
Egypt, for instance, the oldest settlements have
been found on desert plateaus in Upper Egypt
early in the Paleolithic age[i]
and apparently resulted from peoples who gradually migrated from other areas
that climate change had rendered incapable of producing sufficient food.[ii]
Too many people competing and fighting for limited resources created enough political chaos for which pastoral and sedentary agriculture emerged as social answers to the new reality. It is perhaps from this milieu that the verbal stories of Adam and Eve took shape, as humans began to think of matters of good and evil and of the secret, “god-like” knowledge that transformed them from foragers into agrarians.
That secret knowledge accelerated the emergence process, which moves quickly and exponentially as one idea leads to another, jumping from one field of inquiry into other realms that might seem completely different and yet are connected by the human element and its master of strange connections, the mind.
Agriculture, both pastoral and sedentary, sparked the emergence of a new idea, civilization, which led to conflict between rival lifestyles. Civilization created towns, which in turn led to priestly, political and military elites; to governments; and to city states. Likewise, it led to new technologies that emerged to handle the needs of the new way of life, such as plows, pottery and textiles. People began to acquire the specialized knowledge of particular trades, and the new ideas of property, wealth, mythology and religion soon emerged.
Further chaos and conflict over resources led to more warfare, urbanization, and the first empires, which emerged about 5,000 years ago in the Near East and the
as a new political creation to distribute wealth and resources. The development
of walled cities, written language, calendars, monumental architecture, and the
division of labor were the products of such emergence. Moving forward, one could
point to the emergence of advances in law codes, and new theories of polity,
philosophy and religion, all of which stemmed from the discovery of
agriculture. Nile River basin
The ancient empires emerged from chaotic struggles between city states that first begat kingdoms and, after further chaotic conflict, merged through warfare to become imperial realms. From the chaos of the ancient Greek city states sprang Alexander’s Macedonian empire, which emerged as a political construct aimed at bringing new order to the chaos. Its Hellenistic civilization too fell back toward chaos and was later absorbed and transformed by the Roman Empire, which imposed order for a long time on the chaotic soup of peoples centered around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Asia and
Africa. Likewise, the development of Empires in China, India
and the Americas
might be seen as similar attempts to impose order on chaos, emerging answers to
political problems of their time.
Following the timeline, after the fall of the Roman Empire in the West,
plunged into the deep chaos of the “Dark Ages,” but from that chaotic medieval
soup sprang the Renaissance, a vast emergence of grand proportion that produced
an explosion of new ideas across all sectors of inquiry. With the invention of the printing press,
ideas became open to more people, sparking further emergence. From the chaos of the religious and dynastic
wars of the 1500s and 1600s, the Enlightenment emerged, leading to many more
innovations and experiments across many fields of endeavor, even including the
political and religious experiment now known as the United States of
Technologically, the industrial revolution would create an unstoppable, exponential emergence machine that has brought more changes to humanity than ever before. The industrial revolution brought science, technology, government, commercial enterprise, and religion together in a new way, institutionalizing emergence and driving it forward to generate change in ways that would have been inconceivable to the peoples of earlier centuries. The idea of Progress became king in the West, and the planet has never been the same.
Emergence in the Science of Warfare
In the human sphere, because of the propensity toward warfare as a political problem-solving strategy, the emergence phenomenon can be seen clearly in the evolution of humanity’s tools with which it does its fighting. The emergence process has ruled man from the time he first picked up that rock, stick, or jawbone of an ass and swung at his rival in a heated rage, to today when he might push buttons and maneuver a joystick to blow his enemy to smithereens.
Warfare is by nature chaotic and destructive. Military leaders know that, no matter how formulated their plans, once the fighters engage in battle, all bets are off. They can only hope to adapt on the battlefield to new situations that arise and to develop new systems to better manage the “combat of the future,” whatever that may be. When the need to adapt causes new, more complex alignments that revolutionize the future of warfare, the new innovation created from the chaos and destruction displays emergence in action.
But warfare also creates new technologies. Therefore, to see emergence at work, one only needs to study the history of warfare.[iii] First, however, one must dispense with the myth that early man was a much more peaceful being than he is now. Although experts once believed that, more recent archaeology tells a different tale. Humanity has most likely always been prone to violence, as stories such as that of Cain and Abel in the Old Testament attest, and deadly violence often found expression in homicides or in primitive, tribal warfare between groups. In War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage, anthropologist Lawrence H. Keeley tells us that 90 to 95 percent of known societies engage in war and that tribal warfare is on average 20 times more deadly than 20th Century warfare.[iv]
However, while the desire to kill and the need to defeat one’s enemies have always been with us, warfare’s true development as a science and/or art still closely parallels that of civilization itself. Military specialization, as well as greater sophistication in arms, tactics and strategic use of violence for political ends clearly walk hand-in-hand with the development of other core attributes of human civilization such as agriculture, animal domestication and complex urban societies.
In fact, the emergence of such complex societies about 5000 BCE is perhaps the “Big Bang” that truly drove all later military invention. When the great ancient cultures took root along the Nile and near the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers, they launched an
arms revolution that led armies to dump stone weapons in favor of bronze within
a few centuries. Soon people traded the
chaotic nature of alliances between family, clans and tribes for a declaration
of fealty to another human invention, the state, which then emerged as perhaps
the dominant driving force for humanity and its militaries for the millennia to
come. Indeed, the state might be seen as
the greatest weapon man ever invented.
A state means goals, strategy and movement toward professional standing armies in the early empires of
Egypt, Sumer and Akkad. The chaos of the battlefield drove the
emergence of helmets to defend against the mace and body armor to defend
against swords and other hand weapons.[v] Armies learned that chaotic mass charges
don’t always work well, so the phalanx military formation emerged in Sumer[vi]
as a more organized alternative. This
disciplined fighting tactic clustered men with shields in a defensive grouping,
providing the ancient equivalent to the protection of an armored vehicle, and variations
of the tactic were employed for two thousand years.
Because the long Nile oasis was somewhat more insulated from outside forces than the brewing mix of invasion-crazy civilizations within and bordering Mesopotamia, ancient
Egypt’s military technology lagged behind Sumer,[vii]
once again showing the necessity of a chaotic environment to the emergence
phenomena. However, Egypt eventually
obtained the better weapons developed by the Sumerians and used them to sustain
its more enduring empire. The Sumerian
and Akkadian invention of the composite bow, which offered two to three times
the firepower of a standard bow and allowed arrows to pierce armor from a
greater distance, provides one example of such technology,[viii]
and the wheeled chariot that emerged in Sumer as the first battlefield vehicle
-- developed later to its full potential by the Hyksos, Hittites, Canaanites, Assyrians
and Egyptians -- provides another.[ix]
Apparently, it took the chaotic Hyksos invasion of
Egypt in 1720 BCE to show the
Egyptians the benefits of the new bow and chariot, as well as the penetrating
axe, sickle-sword, helmet and body armor, and it would likewise take battle
against the Assyrians to teach them the value of cavalry units. [x] By the time Pharaoh Ahmose I expelled the
Hyksos from the Nile Delta about 200 years later, a reorganized Egypt emerged,
with a professional national military complete with conscription,[xi]
one of the many advantages a powerful state can provide.
The Hittites’ first use of iron in battle about 1300 BCE marks the next great emergence in weaponry technology. Iron weapons were heated and hammered into shape rather than melted and cast, which meant they were stronger, less brittle and more reliable than bronze.[xii] And they became plentiful because they did not require tin, which wasn’t easy to find.
The new Iron Age, which lasted from about 1500 BCE to 100 CE, produced national armies composed of citizens of states. The new armies of the Egyptians, Hittites, Assyrians, Greeks, Persians, Macedonians and Romans were larger, better organized, better trained, more mobile, and employed better logistics, transportation, communication, siegecraft and artillery than their forebears.[xiii] Emergent warfare technologies of the era included such items as carts drawn by oxen, horses or mules to carry supplies, roads and bridges, military maps, protective jackboots instead of sandals, and naval warfare and support for land forces. Better logistics allowed armies to travel thousands of miles, twice as far as previous armies. For instance, a Roman legion had a strategic range of 3,000 by 1,500 miles, which was ten times that of a Sumerian army and double that of Egyptian armies of 1,000 years earlier.[xiv]
Rome’s Empire aged, and
the military guarding its western half began to be infiltrated by barbarian
mercenaries, many of whom were skilled horsemen, a greater emphasis began to be
placed on cavalry, a trend that from one day would emerge the armored knights of
the Middle Ages as decentralized feudal armies took over for central
authority. In the Eastern
Roman Empire, the Byzantines also began to focus more on cavalry
tactics, although Roman infantry organization remained intact.
Eventually, the Empire fell in the West, and a long period of political chaos and decentralization ensued, except for brief interludes when Charlemagne united much of
Western Europe or other relatively
powerful kings exerted influence. Just
as outside tribes had overwhelmed the Western Roman state, the armies of Islam began
to take over the eastern provinces in the seventh and eighth centuries. At first, the Muslims fought with primitive
weaponry and armament, but gradually the Arab armies, like the Egyptians before
them, borrowed the weapons and tactics of their Byzantine and Persian
The mounted, armored knight reigned supreme in medieval combat. However, out of these centuries of chaos, during which Constantinople fell to the Muslims and a great exodus of scholarly knowledge headed for the West, a new time of great creativity dawned as ancient knowledge was rediscovered. In military terms, the new Renaissance outlook could be seen at the Battle of Laupen in 1339, when Swiss infantry defeated mounted knights by employing what amounted to a Macedonian phalanx, and at the battle of Crecy in 1346, when English archers defeated the French with inspired use of the longbow, reminiscent of the advances of the composite bowmen of old.[xv]
By the end of the Hundred Years War in 1457, infantry again become an important component of armies. What made the difference? The new chaotic and creative Renaissance brought the next major incident of emergence, that of gunpowder and the weapons – muskets, cannons and mortars – that used it. A line of men firing muskets simultaneously, for instance, created a wall of bullets that was much more deadly than arrows. Likewise, the new firearms created the need for truly professional armies with men who had been trained in specified skills, and it would lead once again to an army of citizens from more than just the noble class.
As subsequent innovations brought better types of gunpowder, better locks to spark the powder, and then cartridges – first made of paper and later combining powder and bullet in a single metal container – the firearms continued to become more useful and deadly. And each major innovation meant new tactics. When the wheel lock was invented, for instance, allowing a pistol that could be fired with one hand, new techniques could be developed for cavalry to take advantage of the deadly combination of pistol and saber.[xvi]
Similarly, the invention of the bayonet allowed the jobs of musketeer and pikeman to be combined,[xvii] the rifled barrel brought greater accuracy at a greater distance, and repeating rifles and machine guns would increase the rate of fire exponentially. Likewise, consistent and regular innovation would lead to improved artillery that could deliver shells accurately from miles away. But all of these innovations stemmed from the emergence of gunpowder during the Renaissance, that remarkably chaotic and creative of times.
In addition, from the Renaissance sprang the emergence of the nation-state as the dominant political structure that would drive warfare into the modern age. Now people would fight for not just because a lord or king said so, but because one’s country needed or demanded it. Now national pride became a consideration as well.
As nation-states developed more complex economic structures, new merchant and financial classes arose, and by the 18th century, monarchs and their governments could not go to war without them.[xviii] Then another chaotic era that would generate creativity, the Industrial Revolution, would bring mass production of weapons and interchangeable parts into play. This chaotic new age of discovery and rediscovery gave way to the orderly functioning of the modern age of the machine, seen in both the actual mechanical instruments driving the factories and textile mills and in the socially engineered bureaucracy of government and new ways to organize society. For example, in military terms, Napoleonic France took the nation/state further than ever before by mobilizing the entire state population for total war through conscription under an officer corps based on talent rather than social class.[xix] Likewise,
main opponent, Britain,
was in the midst of building its own empire, a world-wide commercial machine of
ordered trade and finance. The dance
between chaos and order continued.
Machines tend to beget further machines. While perhaps the greatest symbol of the new emerging reality was the machine gun, the new and deadly combination of gunpowder combined with the practical destruction capabilities of the machine would also lead to a revolution in Naval technology, allowing for ships that would become gun platforms on water and which could be used to squelch the enemy’s economy through blockade. And the pace of improvements to artillery would likewise lead to changes in ship design, leading to iron, and later steel, turrets and hulls. Naval technology continued to move forward, bringing steam power, oil boilers, dreadnought-class warships, submarines, torpedoes, depth charges, mines and aircraft carriers.
Of course, there would be no carriers without the invention of the airplane, which, along with the automobile, was another revolutionary technology to emerge from the churning chaotic soup of new ideas at the “turn of the century.” As the 19th Century gave way to the 20th, international exhibitions of technology such as the 1904
St. Louis World’s Fair
became fashionable, and inventors such as Thomas Edison, with his electric
light and telephone, and the Wright brothers, with their airplane, became the
heroes of the modern age.
Dayton bike tinkerers
probably could not predict that, before long, mechanical firepower would be
brought to the skies, first with planes dropping bombs on land and sea targets,
and later with fighter planes shooting each other down in combat. In World War I, that trend began modestly,
with airborne observers throwing bricks and lengths of chain at each other, and
eventually firing pistols and rifles, doing their best to miss their plane’s
propellor.[xx] It would not be long before mounted machine
guns with interrupter devices, the first of which was designed by Germany’s
would rule the skies over the Western Front.
Looking back at World War I, one can taste the delicious irony of an apparently orderly international structure of competing empires and nation states unleashing such devastation. Once the empires’ army machines had been launched, they could not be stopped, and the seemingly endless carnage reached unparalleled levels, producing 37 million in dead and wounded, military and civilian. But out of the destructive cauldron of World War I emerged much of what we think of as “modern,” perhaps the greatest example of which was the idea that ethnically similar groups of people should be allowed to form their own nation-states and thereby govern themselves.
And in an interesting twist, the creative chaos generated by World War I brought the weapon that helped eventually defeat the machine gun and turn the tide, the tank. As a modern answer to the ancient chariot, it would help to break the stalemate on the Western Front. More importantly, the tank would play a decisive role in the land battles that would decide Round Two a couple of decades later.
World War I and its aftermath brought socio-political chaos to Europe, with revolution in
Russia, economic collapse in Germany, and
disintegration of the Hapsburg and Ottoman empires. But many great technological advances would
emerge in the years between the world wars, including major changes in
automobiles, aircraft, watercraft and rocketry.
The creative era would lead to another, even larger world war that unleashed twice the destructive power of the first, leading to the deaths of at least 60 million people, and perhaps as much as 78 million. Improved tanks, aircraft carriers, self-propelled artillery, bombers, unguided rockets, radar and jet power all would emerge from the chaotic destruction of World War II. But of course, the most fearsome technology to emerge from the chaos was the atomic bomb. For the first time, humans created a weapon that had the potential to wipe out an entire city with one bomb.
In the years since World War II, the two superpowers and their allies refined their nuclear weapons so that they could devastate the planet within a few minutes using such technologies as Multiple Independent Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs). When each missile can carry 10 separate warheads with a range of 10,000 miles,[xxii] such as the Trident II, damage multiplies quickly. Likewise conventional warfare had by 1980 become hundreds of times as lethal as in World War II[xxiii] with the addition of such technology as combat helicopters. With the advent of smart weapons such as predator drones and bunker busting bombs during recent conflicts, humanity’s ability to destroy itself has grown exponentially in recent decades to the point where military forces have the capability to destroy any target that can be located.
Today, warfare is based more on the amount of lethal technology that can be brought to bear on the battlefield rather than the size of the force, and the linear tactics of the past have been replaced by swirling tactics that require an army to fight the direct battle in front, the deep battle behind the enemy’s lines and the rear battle in one’s own defense.[xxiv] In this sense, perhaps, winning a modern war has become an exercise in imposing one’s ma’at on a particularly chaotic battlefield that includes attacks from several directions at once.
The Path of Cain
Humanity’s journey from the Garden of Eden along Cain’s path has been long and far, with its capacity for deadly force providing just one example.
The allegorical story in Genesis of the first man and woman’s discovery of self-awareness and their emergence from God’s garden playground to begin the march toward civilization presents a compelling tale that still holds allegorical truth today. One of these grains of truth may be that each new discovery, each new instance of emergence, brings an element of loss. As humans emerge from one way of thinking to another, they also must leave something behind.
The atomic bomb certainly leaves little room for error in any march toward conflict. Gone are the days prior to World War I when leaders simply mobilized their armies, and, once set in motion, they could not be stopped.
But there are even more apt examples within the civilian realm. The invention of television and air conditioning led families to cocoon indoors on hot summer evenings when, in earlier times, they might have spent evenings outside, communing with their neighbors on front porches. The author’s grandmother told him stories that in summertime in the early years of the 20th Century in St. Louis a child would be sent to the local tavern with a beer bucket called a growler, so named for the sound it made when filled from a tap. The adult neighbors would share the cool beer on their front porches and discuss matters of import while the children played nearby. Each sultry summer evening spawned its own social event. Then, to stay cool, they all would sleep on their porches, in their yards, or in the park. Today, families claim they are too busy for such neighborly activities; they’d rather stay indoors and play video games. Technological emergence caused us to lose a close relationship with our neighbors.
Similarly, when Interstate highways were built through tight-knit neighborhoods in the 1950s and 1960s, connections between people were broken in the name of suburban growth. Once again, the price of progress was a lost sense of community.
In the later decades of the 20th Century, the invention of computers and then personal computers brought new opportunities to study and analyze everything around and within us. Some employees may have lost their jobs to these gleaming new thinking machines. For a while, before the recent invention of the Internet and then social networks, it seemed that computers might actually be causing us to lose connection with our fellow human beings. Now, it seems that we may have lost control of our lives as e-mail and newer methods of social networking take more and more of our free time.
Much as the personal computer emerged from the chaotic primordial soup of computer research, consider the work it took to engineer missions that sent men to space and the moon out of the chaos of scientists and physicians from many different fields all working together, each with his or her own ideas. Yet something beautiful emerged in that small step for man that was also a giant leap for humanity. Now those space scientists must look toward longer missions, for which new protocols must emerge. Just dealing with the challenges of human psychology and interpersonal relations on long missions looks daunting. If we can manage to keep a crew from killing each other on a 250-day voyage in a tin can to Mars, the experience will be bound to produce emergence on a scale unknown in human history.
The fact is that we are not so different from those who have gone before. In many ways, our lives are a long quest for meaning, as we try to impose order on chaos. We look to find that order in whatever art, science or religion we choose to pursue, and soon that quest leads to the next great idea that emerges from the chaos.
Certainly, we should learn to greater appreciate that chaos which breeds new ideas. Does each new emerging discovery make us more like God, bringing brings us closer to the Almighty’s perception of creation? Certainly, the first agriculturalists must have felt god-like as they “created” plants from the ground for the first time.
And maybe, just maybe, as we surge toward a world population of 7 billion, as separate souls on similar missions, woven into a tapestry of lives here on earth and perhaps beyond, a greater understanding of the process of emergence through history might lead us to a greater understanding of the Supreme Being’s design for the universe. We can only hope.
[i]Steindorff, George and Keith C. Seele, “When
Ruled the East,” Press, 1957,
p. 8. University
[ii] Steindorff, p. 9.
[iii] Stofft, Willam A., Karl W. Robinson and Gary L. Guertner, “A Short History of War,”
U.S. , June 30, 1992. Web. Army War College
Lawrence H. Keeley, War Before Civilization: The
Myth of the Peaceful Savage,
Press, 1996. Oxford University
[v]Stofft et al., “A Short History of War,”
June 30, 1992. Web. Army War College
[vi] Stofft et al.
[vii] Stofft et al.
[viii] Stofft et al.
[ix] Stofft et al.
[x] Stofft et al.
[xi] Stofft et al.
[xii] Stofft et al.
[xiii] Stofft et al.
[xiv] Stofft et al.
[xv] Stofft et al.
[xvi] Stofft et al.
[xvii] Stofft et al.
[xviii] Stofft et al.
[xix] Stofft et al.
[xx] Gene Gurney, Flying Aces of World War I, Random House, 1965, p. 14.
[xxi] Gurney, p. 21.
[xxii] Stofft et al.
[xxiii] Stofft et al.
[xxiv] Stofft et al.
Jim Muench April 4, 2011 - draft....